Crimes Chronology

1941

June

June, 22. German and Romanian airplanes attacked Kishinev, concentrating the bombing on the center of the city. In consequence of the bombing and the ensuing conflagration, thousands of people died, most of whom were Jewish. During the first several hours of Nazi occupation a vast number of Kishinev Jews were shot (or killed by local tenants) right on the streets of the city or even in their homes.

June, 24. The Kishinev ghetto was created.

July

Bessarabian Governor Voiculescu issued an order to create ghettos in Orhei, Cahul, Edinet, Marculesti, Vertiujani, Riscani, Limbeni and other settlements of Bessarabia.

August

August, 5. Beginning of the Odessa siege.

August, 7. 500 Jewish men and 25 women from Kishinev ghetto were sent to the Romanian Road Superintendent to work on the Ghidighici stone-pit. Within a week 325 of them were killed by Romanian soldiers.
On this same day German troops occupied Tiraspol and Dubosari.

August, 31. Adolf Hitler and Ion Antonescu concluded a treaty on deportation of Bessarabian Jews to Transnistria.

September

About ten thousand Jews of Transnistria who could not escape were taken to the ghetto and then shoot or confined in concentration camps.
18,000 local Jews and those deported from Bessarabia were shot dead by the Fascists in Dubosari;
1,500 Jews were killed in Tiraspol;
1,300 in Ribnita;
more than 500 in Camenca.

September, 1. Concentration camps had been created in the Bessarabian shtetl Marculesti, where 11,000 Jews and then another thousand people were confined. Jews from other smaller ghettos (Riscani, Limbeni, and Reutel) were sent to the concentration camp in Marculesti.

September, 10. Antonescu concluded a treaty on the deportation of Jews from Bessarabian concentration camps to Transnistria in groups of 1,600 people daily. According to this order, Jews were to be killed on the way. The Dniester was full of dead bodies. In the Cosouti forest (opposite Moghilev-Podoliskii, Vinita region) a huge excavation was prepared for thousands and thousands of Jews.

October

October, 4. The first group of deportees from the Dniester region passed the Orhei road. Most of them were shot on the way or sank when crossing the Dniester. The deportation lasted the whole month. The Dniester banks were full of dead bodies.

October, 16. Odessa could not stand enemys oppression. During the first day of citys occupation, the Nazis (Einzatskommando 116) together with Romanian Intelligence task force killed 8,000 Jews.

October, 17 18. By orders, 3,000 4,000 Jews were killed on Odessas Central Square.

October, 22. An explosion in the Romanian main office took place, killing 66 Romanian military men, including the Superintendent of Odessa.

Ion Antonescu issued an order to exterminate 200 communists for every officer and 100 communists for every Romanian soldier killed, and imprison a person from each Jewish family.

October, 23. 5,000 people, most of them Jewish, were arrested and killed; most of them were hung, the rest shot dead.
On this very day in the afternoon, Romanian soldiers imprisoned 20,000 Jews in an Odessa prison. The next day all the prisoners were taken to Dalinic village uptown Odessa, where some of them were shot and the rest put into a shed and burned.

October, 25 November, 3. The 35,000 40,000 Jews who survived were put in the ghetto in the Slobodca shtetl and stayed there 10 days in the open air. Many of them (elderly, women and children) died from exposure.

October, 31. The last group of 257 people was sent from Kishinev.

The concentration camp was created in Domanevca (Nicolaev region) in October, under command of Romanian colonel Modest Isupescu. During this month in Bogdanovka (Pervomaischi area, Nicolaev region), another concentration camp was created where 54,000 Jews were held (48,000 from Odessa and 7,000 from Bessarabia).

November

November, 7. Jews from Bessarabia and Romania were put into the Odessa ghetto before deportation. All possessions were confiscated.

November, 11. Ion Antonescu signs order #23. This restricted Jewish people from crossing national borders and to choose their place of living freely; they were to live in the ghetto and had to do hard labor for the commonwealth. They were promised to be paid, but were not in fact. The ghetto was under the jurisdiction of the local Romanian administration.

November, 1941 January, 1942 20,000 Jews from Odessa were imprisoned in the Domanevca, Ochacova, and Berezovchi concentration camps (those people who remained alive after the Einzatscommando execution).

December

Colonel Isupescu, superintendent of Domanevca, issued an order to kill Jews and they were shot in groups of 500 people by Romanian soldiers and gendarmes, Ukrainian policemen, local Germans from Zonderkommando (Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle, VOMI), and organizations joining Germans outside the Reich.
Up to 18,000 Jews were killed after the Nazis took all of their personal things. Their bodies were left unburied.

Many cases of typhus were registered in the Bogdanovka ghetto. On the advice of a German consultant for the Romanian administration, Pleischer superintendent Isupescu made a decision to kill all the prisoners of the Bogdanovka ghetto. Vasile Manescu was appointed responsible for the execution.

December, 21. The execution in Bogdanovka began. Representatives of the Romanian gendarmerie, Ukrainian policemen and civilians (from Pervomaisk), local Germans (Volksdeutsche) under the head of Ukrainian police Kazakevich command put the ill and disabled (5,000 people) into transportation trains. The tops were thatched, poured over with gas and set fire. All the people inside the carriages burned alive.

All the rest were gathered in groups of 300400 people. They were led up to the river, ordered to kneel and put their heads into the water. After that they were shot. Thus, 30,000 Jews were killed, but the rest were left freezing in the air, waiting for their death to come. Others dug graves for those who had already frozen.

Before the Catholic Christmas (December, 25) the execution was stopped, but afterwards it began again.

By December 31st 11,000 Jews were killed. 200 Jews were left alive to burn the dead bodies. 150 of them froze and were shot.

1942

February

The killings in Domanevca stopped.

Afterwards, the rest of the Jews from Odessa were sent to Domanevca. There were no more killings, but the prisoners died from hunger, exposure, and illnesses. The prisoners of the ghetto, (2,000 3,000 people) ruled by the Romanian gendarme, were put into two glass-houses, pigsties and several roofless buildings. They were not allowed to leave their rooms. A few exploitable people were sent into forced, hard labor and got a minimum of food for it. The rest died of hunger, several people a day. They ate worms and mice.

When Gherghe Alexianu saw the prisoners he ordered the ghetto to be moved 6 kilometers away, so that nobody could see them. When the snow began to melt a group of 60 people was sent to orderly take care of the Jews without letting the epidemic spread. The bodies were stacked in several layers and were burnt out with gas and brushwood.

A German subdivision Zonderkommando D made a request to the Romanian gendarme to give them a few hundred Jews. The Romanians complied with pleasure and gave the required number of prisoners. All those Jews were killed nearby the ghetto.

The End of 1942

About 1,000 Jews left in Domanevca, most of them women.

1943

At the beginning of the year most of the Domanevca Jews left were sent to Akmecetca and were shot there.

1944

March

March, 19. In Ribnita, Fascists killed about 3,000 people and burnt in prison 300 people of different nationalities.

March, 28. Soviet troops liberated Domanevca. Of the 500 Jews left there, most of them had been deported from Romania.

April

April, 10. Soviet troops liberated Odessa. During the war, 99,000 Jews from the city had been killed.

April, 10 - 12. The liberation of Tiraspol, Dubosari and Grigoriopoli.

August

August, 20 - 29. Iasi Chisinau operation. Final liberation of Bessarabia.

August, 23. Chisinau is liberated. By the end of the war not a single Jew was left in the city.

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